Fourth National Climate Assessment | GlobalChange.gov (2022)

General

What is the U.S. Global Change Research Program? What does it do?

The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) was established by Presidential initiative in 1989 and mandated by Congress in the Global Change Research Act (GCRA) of 1990. Its mandate is to develop and coordinate “a comprehensive and integrated United States research program which will assist the Nation and the world to understand, assess, predict, and respond to human-induced and natural processes of global change.” USGCRP comprises 13 Federal agencies that conduct or use research on global change and its impacts on society.

What is the National Climate Assessment and why is it written?

Through the GCRA, USGCRP is mandated to produce a quadrennial assessment, which has become known as the National Climate Assessment (NCA). The NCA is required to a) integrate, evaluate, and interpret the findings of the Program and discuss the scientific uncertainties associated with such findings; b) analyze the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity, and c) analyze current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and project major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years.

What about previous NCAs?

To date, three NCAs have been released. The first NCA was published in 2000, and the second was published in 2009. More information on these reports can be accessed here. The third NCA, Climate Change Impacts in the United States was published in 2014 and released in printable format and as an interactive website. The Fourth NCA (NCA4) builds on the work of these previous assessments.

(Video) An Overview of the Fourth National Climate Assessment

Is the Climate Science Special Report just another name for the Fourth National Climate Assessment? What’s the relationship between the two reports? How are they different?

For the Third NCA (released in 2014), authors developed a large physical science appendix. In the early planning stages for NCA4, it was decided that to best inform the impacts assessment, the physical science assessment should be completed in advance. As a result, NCA4 is being developed in two sequential volumes.

Volume I, the Climate Science Special Report, or CSSR, was released in November 2017. The CSSR assesses the science of climate change, with a focus on the United States. It is intended to serve as the foundation for efforts to assess climate-related risks and inform decision-making about responses. The findings in CSSR are based on a large body of scientific, peer-reviewed research, as well as a number of other publicly available sources, including well-established and carefully evaluated observational and modeling datasets.

NCA4 Volume II, Impacts, Risks and Adaptation in the United States, is a technical, scientific assessment of climate change-related impacts, risks, and adaptation. It assesses a range of potential impacts, helping decision makers better identify risks that could be avoided or reduced. Like the CSSR, the findings in Volume II are based on a large body of scientific, peer-reviewed research, as well as a number of other publicly available sources, including well-established and carefully evaluated observational and modeling datasets.

Do either of the reports offer policy recommendations?

Consistent with common practice for USGCRP assessment products, both Volume I and Volume II of NCA4 are technical scientific assessments. Neither makes policy recommendations or evaluates existing or proposed policies.

(Video) Trump Administration Releases Fourth National Climate Assessment

NCA4 Vol. I: Climate Science Special Report

Process

Who wrote the CSSR?

CSSR is the responsibility of the Subcommittee on Global Change Research (SGCR), which directs the activities of USGCRP. The SGCR established a Federal Science Steering Committee (SSC) to direct the CSSR project. A team of three Coordinating Lead Authors, selected by the SSC, led the report’s development. CSSR was written by a team of 32 Lead Authors, including scientists from Federal agencies, academia, and the private sector. These authors were nominated through a public process and selected by the SSC for their expertise. Contributing authors were invited to provide input on specific topics, as needed.

What was the review process?

CSSR was subjected to a rigorous, six-step review process. The Zero Order Draft was reviewed by the author team. The First and Second Order Drafts were reviewed by the SSC and SGCR, respectively. The Third Order Draft of CSSR was released for public comment and simultaneous review by an expert panel of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in December 2016. This review resulted in a Fourth Order Draft that underwent an additional round of interagency review in May 2017. Authors responded to those comments and produced a Fifth Order Draft, which was subject to Final Federal Clearance.

How long has this report been in production?

CSSR has been in production since early 2015.

(Video) News / The Fourth National Climate Assessment Report 2018

Other

Can I use this report to [teach a class, etc]?

Yes. Unless otherwise stated, all information and figures in this report are in the public domain. We just ask that you use the appropriate citation when using this document.

NCA4 Vol. II: Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States

Process

Who wrote NCA4 Vol. II?

NCA4 Vol. II is the responsibility of the Subcommittee on Global Change Research (SGCR), which directs the activities of USGCRP. The SGCR established a Federal Steering Committee to oversee the NCA4 process. NCA4 Volume II was written by more than 300 Federal and non-Federal authors representing a range of expertise, a number of whom were selected through a public call for author nominations. Technical contributors were invited to provide input on specific topics, as needed.

What was the review process?

(Video) Trump Administration Releases the 4th National Climate Assessment Report

NCA4 Vol. II underwent a rigorous, 8-step review process both internal and external to the U.S. Government: (1) Initial chapter outlines were reviewed in December 2016 by the Federal Steering Committee, and (2) a Zero Order Draft (consisting of annotated outlines) was then reviewed by the SGCR. A full First Order Draft underwent (3) a technical and editorial review by the NOAA Technical Support Unit (TSU), which resulted in a Second Order Draft that was (4) reviewed by the SGCR. The Third Order Draft of NCA4 Vol. II was released for (5) public comment and (6) simultaneous review by an expert panel of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in November 2017. This review resulted in a Fourth Order Draft for (7) final agency review and clearance in May 2018. The Federal Steering Committee ensured all final agency review comments were adequately addressed and (8) a final round of technical and editorial review was provided during summer 2018 on the Fifth Order Draft by NCA leadership and the NOAA TSU. NCA and TSU staff, as well as the authors themselves, performed a final showstopper review of chapter proofs in Autumn 2018.

How long was this report in production?

Planning for Volume II of NCA4 began shortly after the release of the Third NCA in 2014. A draft prospectus was released for public comment in the summer of 2016.

Content (General)

How does Volume II of NCA4 differ from NCA3?

Most fundamentally, the majority of the report’s focus has shifted from national-level chapters to regional chapters, in response to public demand for more localized information on climate impacts. As a result, not only do the regional chapters provide more detail, but the Great Plains chapter has been split into separate Northern and Southern Great Plains chapters, and a new chapter focusing exclusively on the U.S. Caribbean has been added. Volume II also reflects a number of advances in the science of climate change impacts and adaptation with the inclusion of new national-level chapters on Air Quality; Climate Effects on U.S. International Interests; and a chapter on Sector Interactions, Multiple Stressors and Complex Systems. Finally, and again in response to public feedback and input, the report reflects three cross-cutting contextual advances: (1) more of an international context, (2) enhanced coverage of the economic impacts, and (3) greater focus on risk-based framing.

(Video) The 4th National Climate Assessment, with Dr. Katharine Hayhoe

Other

Can I use this report to [teach a class, etc]?

Yes. Unless otherwise stated, all information and figures in this report are in the public domain. We just ask that you use the appropriate citation when using this document.

FAQs

When was the 4th National Climate Assessment published? ›

The Fourth National Climate Assessment

Fourth National Climate Assessment
The National Climate Assessment (NCA) assesses the science of climate change and variability and its impacts across the United States, now and throughout this century.
https://nca2018.globalchange.gov
(NCA4), completed in November 2018, is a comprehensive and authoritative report on climate change and its impacts in the United States.

What is the most recent National Climate Assessment? ›

Through the efforts of USGCRP, authors, NOAA's Technical Support Unit, and support staff, the Fifth National Climate Assessment

National Climate Assessment
The National Climate Assessment (NCA) assesses the science of climate change and variability and its impacts across the United States, now and throughout this century.
https://nca2018.globalchange.gov
(NCA5) has moved from the planning phase to putting pen to paper.

What is the National Climate Assessment and why is it important? ›

The National Climate Assessment (NCA) assesses the science of climate change and variability and its impacts across the United States, now and throughout this century. The Great Lakes region spans large sections of the Midwest and Northeast NCA regions.

Who writes the National Climate Assessment? ›

The Federal government is responsible for producing these reports through the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), a collaboration of 13 Federal agencies and departments.

Who published the 4th National Climate Assessment? ›

Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4) 2017/2018 is a 1,500 page two-part congressionally mandated report by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP)—the first of its kind by the Trump administration, who released the report on November 23, 2018.

What is a climate assessment in the workplace? ›

Employee climate surveys are studies of employees' perceptions and perspectives of an organization. The surveys address attitudes and concerns that help the organization work with employees to instill positive changes.

How often is the National Climate Assessment? ›

USGCRP has a legal mandate to conduct a state-of-the-science synthesis of climate impacts and trends across U.S. regions and sectors every four years, known as the National Climate Assessment

National Climate Assessment
The National Climate Assessment (NCA) assesses the science of climate change and variability and its impacts across the United States, now and throughout this century.
https://nca2018.globalchange.gov
(NCA).

What was the average co2 concentration at the beginning of the 1960s what was the average co2 concentration last year? ›

The atmospheric level of carbon dioxide has been steadily rising since the 1960's. In 2021, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels reached a high of 416.45 parts per million, in comparison to 1960 levels which stood at about 316.91 parts per million.

What is a climate change assessment? ›

Climate change impact assessments identify and quantify the expected impacts of climate change. These assessments synthesize the current scientific knowledge of the expected effects of climate change on a focus area, such as a resource, economic sector, landscape, or region, for decades to centuries into the future.

How does climate change effect the ocean? ›

Climate change warms the ocean, causing knock-on effects such as thermal expansion - which leads to a rise in sea level - and changes in ocean currents. The melting of ice both on land and in the sea also affects the ocean, causing more sea-level rise and reducing the salinity of the ocean, respectively.

What is a national climate emergency? ›

A climate emergency declaration or declaring a climate emergency is an action taken by governments and scientists to acknowledge humanity is in a climate emergency.

How do you conduct a climate survey? ›

Follow these steps when introducing a climate assessment survey into your organization:
  1. Initiate the assessment. ...
  2. Decide to build or buy. ...
  3. Design and administer the assessment. ...
  4. Collate data and analyze results. ...
  5. Package data and communicate results. ...
  6. Act on results. ...
  7. Measure impact.

How has the US been affected by climate change? ›

Climate change has caused increased heat, drought, and insect outbreaks. In turn, these changes have made wildfires more numerous and severe. The warming climate has also caused a decline in water supplies, reduced agricultural yields, and triggered heat-related health impacts in cities.

How has climate change affected the Northeast? ›

Climate change impacts in the Northeast—including extreme precipitation events, sea level rise, coastal and riverine flooding and heat waves—will challenge its environmental, social, and economic systems, increasing the vulnerability of its residents, especially its most disadvantaged populations.

How or why do changes in climate or weather influence the production of food and the food supply on a global and/or local level? ›

Climate change can disrupt food availability, reduce access to food, and affect food quality. For example, projected increases in temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, changes in extreme weather events, and reductions in water availability may all result in reduced agricultural productivity.

What is the climate science special report? ›

The Climate Science Special Report (CSSR) is designed to be an authoritative assessment of the science of climate change, with a focus on the United States, to serve as the foundation for efforts to assess climate-related risks and inform decision-making about responses.

What is the goal of a climate survey? ›

Climate surveys measure participants' perceptions of an institution's climate, including the quality and extent of the interaction between various groups and individuals. Additionally, it looks at perceptions of how the institution supports diversity, equity, and inclusion efforts.

What kinds of questions would be asked of the staff in such an organization if you were to assess the overall organizational climate? ›

25 Organizational Climate Survey Questions
  • Do you always receive the information that is needed to do your job?
  • Do you believe that you will have career growth opportunities in this company?
  • Are you encouraged to contribute to the improvement of work processes?
  • Are you always learning new things in your job?
5 Feb 2016

What are the factors that affect organizational climate? ›

Factors affecting organizational climate
  • The structure of the organization including rules, regulations and constraints.
  • Feelings of helpfulness in the work environment.
  • Perception of the relative risk in the work situation.
  • The level of conflict and tolerance the work environment can tolerate.
31 Oct 2020

Which of the following directly releases the most greenhouse gases every year? ›

Transportation (27% of 2020 greenhouse gas emissions) – The transportation sector generates the largest share of greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions from transportation primarily come from burning fossil fuel for our cars, trucks, ships, trains, and planes.

When was the first journal article published documenting global warming? ›

Before 2016 ends, there's one anniversary we previously didn't get around to marking, the publication in 1896 of the first articles suggesting that carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere might affect Earth's climate via the greenhouse effect, by the Swedish chemist and physicist Svante Arrhenius.

What is a safe CO2 level indoors? ›

To minimize the risk of airborne transmission of viruses, CO2 levels should be as possible in all indoor spaces. It is recommended to stay close to 400 ppm, (outdoor CO2 concentration), and below 800 ppm.

Is CO2 higher in summer or winter? ›

There's more carbon dioxide in the winter and a bit less in the summer. That's the collective breathing of all the plants in the Northern Hemisphere. "Plants are accumulating carbon in the spring and summer when they're active, and they're releasing carbon back to the air in the fall and winter," Graven explains.

What are normal c02 levels? ›

The normal range is 23 to 29 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L) or 23 to 29 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

What are the 5 main effects of climate change? ›

More frequent and intense drought, storms, heat waves, rising sea levels, melting glaciers and warming oceans can directly harm animals, destroy the places they live, and wreak havoc on people's livelihoods and communities.

What are the 5 cause of climate change? ›

Five key greenhouse gases are CO2, nitrous oxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, and water vapor. While the Sun has played a role in past climate changes, the evidence shows the current warming cannot be explained by the Sun.

Why is climate risk assessment important? ›

Climate risk assessments identify the likelihood of future climate hazards and their potential impacts for cities and their communities. This is fundamental for informing the prioritisation of climate action and investment in adaptation.

What produces the most oxygen on Earth? ›

Scientists estimate that 50-80% of the oxygen production on Earth comes from the ocean. The majority of this production is from oceanic plankton — drifting plants, algae, and some bacteria that can photosynthesize. One particular species, Prochlorococcus, is the smallest photosynthetic organism on Earth.

What will the ocean be like in 50 years? ›

It is estimated that by 2050 there could be more plastic in the sea than fish. As the plastic piles up, fish disappear. Since industrialised fishing began in the mid-twentieth century, the oceans have been transformed.

How can we save the ocean from climate change? ›

Sustainability through better ocean use

Examples include offshore renewable energy, low carbon fuel bunkering, decarbonized maritime transport and port infrastructure, sequestration of carbon by coastal and marine ecosystems (also known as blue carbon), and limiting greenhouse gas emissions in oceanic sectors.

Which country declared climate emergency in 2022? ›

The correct answer is option 3, i.e UK.

How many cities have declared a climate emergency? ›

They are just some of the 1,940 (and counting) cities, councils and jurisdictions worldwide to have declared a climate emergency.

What is the climate emergency Act of 2021? ›

The National Climate Emergency Act, which Pingree is a cosponsor of, would direct the President to declare a national climate emergency to ensure large-scale, government mitigation, action, and investments to fight climate change.

What do you do with climate survey results? ›

By taking action toward specific and impactful change, you can share new data based on your next climate survey responses. Communicate to your employees the areas in which you were trying to improve, what actions you took, and the change that you saw. If you don't see a positive change, it means that you can try again!

How often should a command climate survey be conducted? ›

Purpose: Army Regulation 600-20 requires company-level commanders to conduct a unit command climate survey within 30 days of assuming command (120 days for the Army National Guard and the US Army Reserve), again at the six month period, and annually thereafter.

What is a climate survey for school? ›

School climate surveys are scientific measures that evaluate a range of aspects of the educational

educational
Teacher education or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, approaches, methodologies and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community.
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Teacher_education
environment to assess perceptions and identify specific strengths and weaknesses within a school.

When was the first journal article published documenting global warming? ›

Before 2016 ends, there's one anniversary we previously didn't get around to marking, the publication in 1896 of the first articles suggesting that carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere might affect Earth's climate via the greenhouse effect, by the Swedish chemist and physicist Svante Arrhenius.

Which nation has by far released more greenhouse gases over history? ›

This makes the U.S. the biggest contributor to global carbon dioxide emissions by far, having produced almost twice the amount of emissions as the second biggest emitter, China. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, and the main driver of climate change and rising temperatures.

What is a climate change assessment? ›

Climate change impact assessments identify and quantify the expected impacts of climate change. These assessments synthesize the current scientific knowledge of the expected effects of climate change on a focus area, such as a resource, economic sector, landscape, or region, for decades to centuries into the future.

During what time period did the earth gradually cool? ›

Geochemical and sedimentary evidence indicates that Earth experienced as many as four extreme cooling events between 750 million and 580 million years ago.

Who is the world's number one polluter? ›

Top 10 most polluting countries 2022

The three countries with the highest CO2 emissions are: China with 9.9 billion tonnes of CO2 emissions, largely due to the export of consumer goods and its heavy reliance on coal; The United States with 4.4 billion tonnes of CO2 emitted; India with 2.3 billion tonnes of CO2 emitted.

Is global warming the same as climate change? ›

The terms “global warming” and “climate change” are sometimes used interchangeably, but "global warming" is only one aspect of climate change. “Global warming” refers to the long-term warming of the planet.

Which country produces the most carbon dioxide? ›

  1. The United States. The U.S. is the largest emitter of CO2, with approximately 416,738 metric tons of total carbon dioxide emissions by 2020. ...
  2. China. China is the second-largest emitter of carbon dioxide gas in the world, with 235,527 metric tons by 2020. ...
  3. The Russian Federation. ...
  4. Germany. ...
  5. The United Kingdom.

Who is the blame for climate change? ›

Tens of thousands of scientists in more than a hundred nations have amassed an overwhelming amount of evidence pointing to a clear conclusion: Humans are the main cause of climate change.

Which country is doing the best for climate change? ›

Here are the 10 countries that rank the highest in the climate change policy category, according to the Climate Change Performance Index:
  • No. 8: Finland. ...
  • No. 7: France. ...
  • No. 6: Portugal. ...
  • No. 5: Lithuania. ...
  • No. 4: Netherlands. ...
  • No. 3: Morocco. ...
  • No. 2: Denmark. ...
  • No. 1: Luxembourg. Climate Policy Score: 18.11.
22 Apr 2022

Who is the biggest contributor to climate change? ›

Fossil fuels – coal, oil and gas – are by far the largest contributor to global climate change, accounting for over 75 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions and nearly 90 per cent of all carbon dioxide emissions. As greenhouse gas emissions blanket the Earth, they trap the sun's heat.

What are the 5 main effects of climate change? ›

More frequent and intense drought, storms, heat waves, rising sea levels, melting glaciers and warming oceans can directly harm animals, destroy the places they live, and wreak havoc on people's livelihoods and communities.

How often is the National Climate Assessment? ›

USGCRP has a legal mandate to conduct a state-of-the-science synthesis of climate impacts and trends across U.S. regions and sectors every four years, known as the National Climate Assessment

National Climate Assessment
The National Climate Assessment (NCA) assesses the science of climate change and variability and its impacts across the United States, now and throughout this century.
https://nca2018.globalchange.gov
(NCA).

What are the 5 cause of climate change? ›

Five key greenhouse gases are CO2, nitrous oxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, and water vapor. While the Sun has played a role in past climate changes, the evidence shows the current warming cannot be explained by the Sun.

Videos

1. Fourth National Climate Assessment: Impacts of climate change across the Northeast
(Mount Washington Observatory)
2. Nebraska Climate Summit: Fourth National Climate Assessment
(Nebraska State Climate Office)
3. Fourth National Climate Assessment Webinar ft. Dr. Katharine Hayhoe
(Young Evangelicals for Climate Action)
4. Fourth National Climate Assessment
(Sean Anderson)
5. Highlights | Fourth National Climate Assessment
(Mountain Mamas)
6. FOURTH NATIONAL CLIMATE ASSESSMENT
(WikiLeaks On Weed)

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